The robot in the classroom: A review of a robot role

Violeta Rosanda, Andreja Istenic Starcic

The 20th-century was the age of computers and information communication technology; at the beginning of the 21st-century researchers are exploring the use of robots in the classroom. Our review investigates the implementation of copresent social robots with teaching purposes in a classroom setting in areas other than the teaching of subjects that are closely related to the field of Robotics. We are interested in anthropomorphic robots, with an active role in the classroom and capable of human-like activity. With a search of the WOS database and a subsequent manual search in 19 journals we identified 24 relevant articles which have been included in the analysis. Studies mostly include small number of participating learners. In all studies special conditions are established for the robot intervention in a classroom. Most often robots appear in roles as teachers and teacher assistant, Care-Receiving Robot. Robots interventions were conducted by NAO, Saya, RoboThespian, Bioloid, BAXTER, Darwin, NIMA-Robocop, Robosapien, TIRO. Social robots diverge from the computer-mediated communication technologies, as they are not mediating interaction but are partner in interaction. ITSs and ILEs assist teachers in teaching, while the teacher and a robot have a shared presence in the classroom. The copresent social robots performs a social role by interacting with students. Robotic activities are aimed at delivering learning materials and not primarily for individualised teaching, which encompasses the delivery of feedback and the tailoring learning activities for individual learner’s needs.